TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting


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  1. #1
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    Default TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    Hi There,

    I'm trying different little things to get familiar with the use of TMR1 as a timer (I want to use it as a time base).

    Starting with "easy" little things, I'm trying to have my LED toggeling when the button is pressed.

    It does work (immediatley) as long as I have not defined the T1CON and PIE1 registers like hereunder. If I uncomment both T1CON and PIE1 registers, the led will not toggle before (about) one minute has past.

    Why is this please?

    Code:
    ' ====== DEFINES ==================================================================================
    DEFINE OSC 4
    
    ' ====== FUSES ====================================================================================
    ' PIC 16F690
    @ __Config _FCMEN_OFF &_IESO_OFF &_CPD_OFF &_WDT_OFF &_INTRC_OSC_NOCLKOUT &_BOR_OFF &_CP_OFF &_PWRTE_OFF &_MCLRE_OFF 
    
    ' ====== REGISTERS ================================================================================
    '             76543210
    OPTION_REG = %10000000 ' PORT A&B Pull-Ups disabled (look WPUA & WPUB) INTEDG rising edge on A2
    OSCCON     = %01100000 ' Internal RC set to 4Mhz - not to be used with XTal
    ANSEL      = %00000000 ' Analog inputs Channels 0 to 7
    ANSELH     = %00000000 ' Analog inputs Channels 8 to 11
    ADCON0     = %00000000 ' A/D Module is OFF
    CM1CON0    = %00000000 ' Comparator1 Module is OFF
    CM2CON0    = %00000000 ' Comparator2 Module is OFF
    INTCON     = %11000000 ' INTerrupts CONtrol: GIE is ON, PEIE is ON 
    'T1CON      = %00111001 ' Timer1 OSC enabled, Timer1 enabled, presc.1:8 (RA4/RA5!!)
    'PIE1       = %00000001 ' Enable TMR1IF overflow flag
    PORTA      = %00000000 ' Ports High/Low (0 to 5)
    TRISA      = %00000100 ' Set Input/Output (0 to 5)
    PORTB      = %00000000 ' Ports High/Low (4 to 7)
    TRISB      = %00000000 ' Set Input/Output (4 to 7)
    PORTC      = %00000000 ' Ports High/Low (0 to 7)
    TRISC      = %00000000 ' Set Input/Output (0 to 7)
    
    ' ====== VARIABLES ================================================================================
    LED     var PORTB.6
    Btn     var PORTA.2
    ' ====== INITIALIZE ===============================================================================
    PAUSE 1000 'circuit settle time
    
    ' ====== PROGRAM ==================================================================================
    TEST:
        IF Btn = 0 THEN
            TOGGLE LED
            PAUSE 200
        ENDIF
    GOTO TEST
    Roger
    Last edited by flotulopex; - 12th March 2017 at 16:09.
    Roger

  2. #2
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    Default Re: TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    Are you running TMR1 from an external Watch x-tal?

    Anyway, you don't want to enable the interrupt without actually having any code in place to service the interrupt. I suspect that's what's causing your problem.

    Try uncommenting ONLY the T1CON line and I think you'll see that the code continues to work.

    /Henrik.

  3. #3
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    Default Re: TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    Hi Henrik,

    I must be tired.....

    You're right, I've forgotten the most important part when using INTerrupts: the ISR.

    It's corrected and, of course, it works.

    Thanks a lot ;-)

    Br

    Roger
    Roger

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    Default Re: TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    BTW Henrik,

    If you have already seen this, what is best (more accurate): internal 32kHz oscillator or external crystal?
    Roger

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    Default Re: TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    An external x-tal will "always" be more accurate than the internal oscillator on a PIC.

    On the 16F690 the internal 8MHz oscillator is specified as +/-1% under the best conditions (that doesn't mean it can't be better than that though) and the low frequency, 31kHz oscillator is labeled "uncallibrated" and no furhter specification can be found in the datasheet - as far as I can see.

    Your typical 0.20 watch crystal is around 20ppm witch is 500 better than the internal 1% oscillator and if you pony up 0.60 you can get a 5ppm one which would then be 2000 times "better".

    So the answer is that running TMR1 off of an exernal 32.768kHz Watch crystal is "better" (for timekeeping purposes) than running it off the internal oscillator. But if you're ALREADY running the PIC on a 4MHz crystal you might not gain much by using a separate crystal for the timer - except that the timer will keep on running when you put the device to sleep.

    /Henrik.

  6. #6
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    Default Re: TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    Thank you Henrik.

    I'm always in trouble when it gets to make time sensitive projects only using the PIC's features and thier own possiblities.

    In some of my projects, I just use an RTC to use its 1Hz time base and have it read by an external interrupt in the PIC.

    So, what is best?
    Roger

  7. #7
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    Default Re: TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    Define "best".
    Accuracy, long time stability, resolution, power consumption, ease of use, what?

    You can either run the PIC off of an external 4MHz (or whatever you need) x-tal and derive the TMR timebase from the main oscillator. You won't get as slow as 1Hz but you can get, lets say, 100Hz and keep counting interrupts. Or you can use the TMR1 oscillator with a separate (32768Hz ) x-tal. Since it's a 16bit timer it will overflow every 2 seconds if you let it freerun.

    /Henrik.

  8. #8
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    Default Re: TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    When timing is in the game, for me "best" is "accurate".

    Does a higher crystal frequency mean more accuracy?

    Is it best to choose 4'194'304MHz (32'768kHz*128) crystal and lots of interrupts (if used) or a 32'768kHz one (less interrupts - plenty of time to do "things")?
    Roger

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    Default Re: TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    Doesn't really matter as far accuracy goes. Look at the frequency tolerance of the crystals you're considering, the one with the lowest value will be the most accurate one. But keep in mind that the TMR1 oscillator is designed specifically for low frequency crystals, typically a 32.768kHz. The datasheet for the 16F690 says DC to 200kHz.

    /Henrik.

  10. #10
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    Default Re: TMR1 & Button - long delay (1 min) before starting

    Thanks a lot, Henrik.
    Roger

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