setting values and percentages

# Thread: setting values and percentages

1. ## setting values and percentages

Hi,

I'm in the process of developing my LED Aquarium light controller a stage further and smoothing out the pulse width modulation by using 0 - 4095 steps rather than the current 255 setps. I have the leds fading nicely when using preset hard coded values, but I want to be able to program the maximum setting for brightness via the LCD as a percentage between 0 and 100 %. When I used 255 steps the following code worked

Code:
```brightness:

Lcdout \$FE,2
LCDOUT \$FE,\$80,"Set Max Brightness"
IF H_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB up
IF M_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB down
If (maxbright * 100)/255 = 100 then
LCDOUT \$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec3 (maxbright *100)/255,"%"
endif

If (maxbright * 100)/255 =0 or (maxbright * 100)/255 <10 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec1 (maxbright *100)/255,"% "
endif

if (maxbright * 100)/255 >=10 and (maxbright * 100)/255 <100 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec2 (maxbright *100)/255,"%   "
endif
B_max = maxbright
write 8,b_max

If S_butt = 0 then
pause 200
goto brightness2
endif
goto brightness```
But I'm stumped trying to convert this to use 4095 steps. Replacing the 255 with 4095 seemed the logical answer, but that didn't work. Changing the < = or > values (ie 10% would be 409.5) didn't work either.

Any suggestions ?

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## Re: setting values and percentages

you will find that the led 'brightness' will not be a linear progression over the full 4096 steps anyway . its probably easier to have a finite number of brightness levels in a lookup table (how many brightness levels do you think the average person could differentiate between?)
try starting with 20 levels [ 0=off ,( and 18 between ) , 4095=full on] , those in between levels could be established by observation

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Wouldn't he be better just staying with 255? Or am I missing something obvious?

Robert

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## Re: setting values and percentages

maybe malcom could refresh us on the issue , but as I understand it
1.the external pwm chip has 4096 steps
2.the loop update time is in 1 sec intervals
3. the desired fade in /out period divided by the loop time yields too few "pwm" steps for a smooth looking transition if you simply divide 4096 by the number of available steps

my theory is that if the steps are chosen well the effect may be smoother

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by Scampy
Hi,

I'm in the process of developing my LED Aquarium light controller a stage further and smoothing out the pulse width modulation by using 0 - 4095 steps rather than the current 255 setps. I have the leds fading nicely when using preset hard coded values, but I want to be able to program the maximum setting for brightness via the LCD as a percentage between 0 and 100 %. When I used 255 steps the following code worked

Code:
```brightness:

Lcdout \$FE,2
LCDOUT \$FE,\$80,"Set Max Brightness"
IF H_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB up
IF M_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB down
If (maxbright * 100)/255 = 100 then
LCDOUT \$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec3 (maxbright *100)/255,"%"
endif

If (maxbright * 100)/255 =0 or (maxbright * 100)/255 <10 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec1 (maxbright *100)/255,"% "
endif

if (maxbright * 100)/255 >=10 and (maxbright * 100)/255 <100 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec2 (maxbright *100)/255,"%   "
endif
B_max = maxbright
write 8,b_max

If S_butt = 0 then
pause 200
goto brightness2
endif
goto brightness```
But I'm stumped trying to convert this to use 4095 steps. Replacing the 255 with 4095 seemed the logical answer, but that didn't work. Changing the < = or > values (ie 10% would be 409.5) didn't work either.

Any suggestions ?
This code displays the maxbright value which comes from the up/down routines could you post these? Also obviously maxbright has to be a word?

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## Re: setting values and percentages

just notice your brackets are still incorrect too . if you use multiple logical conditions in if statements they must be parenthesized
eg
If (maxbright * 100)/255 =0 or (maxbright * 100)/255 <10 then

should be

If ((maxbright * 100/255 =0 ) or ( (maxbright * 100/255 <10 ) then

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by Scampy
When I used 255 steps the following code worked
Richard,

I am puzzled because like you I believe the parenthesis are required but in this case apparently not. Certainly they are for other software and therefore I use them as you do as "good practice".

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## Re: setting values and percentages

with out the brackets you rely on the "operator precedence" order that the compiler will use , its often not what you really want . best bet is to always use brackets it eliminates the doubt

ps I typed reply #6 wrong left the closing brackets after 100's out
should be
If ((maxbright * 100)/255 =0 ) or ( (maxbright * 100)/255 <10 ) then
Last edited by richard; - 29th June 2014 at 11:34.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Hi Guys and thanks for the input.

As requested here is the complete brightness routine that works when using Darrels software PWM.

Code:
```brightness:

Lcdout \$FE,2
LCDOUT \$FE,\$80,"Set Max Brightness"
IF H_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB up
IF M_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB down
If (maxbright * 100)/255 = 100 then
LCDOUT \$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec3 (maxbright *100)/255,"%"
endif

If (maxbright * 100)/255 =0 or (maxbright * 100)/255 <10 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec1 (maxbright *100)/255,"% "
endif

if (maxbright * 100)/255 >=10 and (maxbright * 100)/255 <100 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec2 (maxbright *100)/255,"%   "
endif
B_max = maxbright
write 8,b_max

If S_butt = 0 then
pause 200
goto brightness2
endif
goto brightness

brightness2:

Lcdout \$FE,2
LCDOUT \$FE,\$80,"Set Max Brightness"
IF H_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB up
IF M_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB down
If (maxbright * 100)/255 = 100 then
LCDOUT \$FE,\$C0,"Channel 2 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec3 (maxbright *100)/255,"%"
endif

If (maxbright * 100)/255 =0 or (maxbright * 100)/255 <10 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 2 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec1 (maxbright *100)/255,"% "
endif

if (maxbright * 100)/255 >=10 and (maxbright * 100)/255 <100 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 2 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec2 (maxbright *100)/255,"%   "
endif

W_max = maxbright
write 9,W_max
pause 200
If S_butt = 0 then
pause 200
LCDOUT \$FE,1
endif
goto brightness2

up:
maxbright = maxbright + 1
IF maxbright > 255 THEN maxbright = 0
pause 50
RETURN
down:
maxbright = maxbright - 1
IF maxbright = 0 THEN maxbright = 255
pause 50
RETURN```
I can't argue with the brackets - all I know when I enter that menu option I can press the up and down buttons and the LCD displays 0% - 100%, and when checked using a diagnostics section which displays the variable value it correctly shows 0 - 255 and 127 for a 50% value - However I'm now using a PCA 9685 chip, which has a resolution of 4095 steps, so the progression is nice and smooth, and all I need is to repeat this but with 4095 steps, ie so 100% = 4095, 1%=40.95 (or 41 as it would need to be an integer) and 50% would equal 2047, but just can't seem to get my head round the calculation (never was any good at percentages at school all those years ago !

Malcolm

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by richard
maybe malcom could refresh us on the issue , but as I understand it
1.the external pwm chip has 4096 steps
2.the loop update time is in 1 sec intervals
3. the desired fade in /out period divided by the loop time yields too few "pwm" steps for a smooth looking transition if you simply divide 4096 by the number of available steps

my theory is that if the steps are chosen well the effect may be smoother
Close

With a friends help I've implemented a routine using the internal timers to get timings under a second.

Code:
```ASM
INT_LIST  macro   ;  IntSource,   Label,        Type, ResetFlag?
INT_Handler   TMR1_INT,  _ToggleLED1,   ASM,  yes
endm
INT_CREATE                                  ; Creates the interrupt processor
ENDASM

T1CON = %00000001                               ; free-running, 1:1 prescaler
TMR1H = %11111111
TMR1L = %11111011
@   INT_ENABLE   TMR1_INT                       ; enable Timer1 interrupts```
And

Code:
```ToggleLED1:
TMR1H = %11111111
TMR1L = %11111011
pcaPwmValue0=pcaPwmValue0+1
pcaPwmValue1=pcaPwmValue1+1
@ INT_RETURN```
I can go from 0 - 4095 in less than two minutes, which helps in test runs.

The ramp up is controlled by the case statement

Code:
```case DAWN
lcdout \$FE,\$80+15,"DAWN "
if pcaPwmValue0 => blue_delay_in then
B_PWM=B_PWM+1
pcaPwmValue0 = 0
endif
if B_PWM => B_MAX then
Blue_Day_Cycle = DAY
endif```
The value for the pulse width is then written to the PCA chip in the main loop

Code:
```pcaChannel = 0                                              ;Set a PWM channel
lcdout \$FE,\$80,"CH1"
i2cControl = \$6 + 4*pcaChannel                              ;LED0_ON_L \$6
I have everything working fine, when using pre-set values for the fade in times and brightness and can do a full dawn, day, dusk, night cycle in five minutes, I just need to be able to sort out the manual settings for adjusting the the brightness so I can enter 0-100% rather than 0 - 4095 on the LCD

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Code:
`PWMValue = Percentage */ 10483`
?

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Bit of a fudge, but it works well enough

Code:
```'*******************************************************************************
' Set Brightness levels for each channel

brightness:

B_max = (4095/100)*maxbright

Lcdout \$FE,2
LCDOUT \$FE,\$80,"Set Max Brightness"
IF H_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB up
IF M_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB down

If maxbright  = 100 then
LCDOUT \$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,#maxbright,"%"
endif

If maxbright  =0 or maxbright <10 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec1 maxbright,"% "
endif

if maxbright >=10 and maxbright <100 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 1 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec2 maxbright,"%   "
endif

If S_butt = 0 then
pause 100
goto brightness2
endif
goto brightness

brightness2:

W_max = (4095/100)*maxbright

Lcdout \$FE,2
LCDOUT \$FE,\$80,"Set Max Brightness"
IF H_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB up
IF M_butt = 0 THEN GOSUB down

If maxbright  = 100 then
LCDOUT \$FE,\$C0,"Channel 2 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,#maxbright,"%"
endif

If maxbright  =0 or maxbright <10 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 2 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec1 maxbright,"% "
endif

if maxbright >=10 and maxbright <100 then
LCDOUT\$FE,\$C0,"Channel 2 "
LCDOut \$FE,\$D4,dec2 maxbright,"%   "
endif

pause 200
If S_butt = 0 then
pause 100
LCDOUT \$FE,1
endif
goto brightness2

up:
maxbright = maxbright + 1
IF maxbright >= 100 THEN maxbright = 100
pause 250
RETURN
down:
maxbright = maxbright - 1
IF maxbright <= 0 THEN maxbright = 0
pause 250
RETURN```
Again, the lack of floating point maths in PBP means the calculations are not exact, but this way every 1% increment equals a block of 41 steps on the PCA chip, so 50% brightness = 2050 but that's close enough to the 2047 is should be and to be honest I doubt if the human eye could distinguish the difference

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Hi,
If it works it works.
If you want it a little better PWMValue = Percentage */ 10483 will give you 2047 at 50%.

/Henrik.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

So using my variables B_max = (4095/100)*maxbright would that be

Code:
`B_max = maxbright */10483`
Nope - that don't work
Last edited by Scampy; - 29th June 2014 at 19:21.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

If B_Max is the value you send to the PWM controller (0-4095) and maxbright is the percentage value (0-100) as entered by the user then yes.
Actually, at 100% it'll give you 4094 so make that B_max = maxbright */10484 instead.

/Henrik.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by HenrikOlsson
If B_Max is the value you send to the PWM controller (0-4095) and maxbright is the percentage value (0-100) as entered by the user then yes.
Actually, at 100% it'll give you 4094 so make that B_max = maxbright */10484 instead.

/Henrik.
Yes - B_max and W_max are the values that are sent to the PCA chip (0 - 4095). And maxbright has a value between 0 and 100 as you assumed. But using that line of code the values for B_max and W_max do not change from the pre-programmed default of 4095 after the menu option is used to change the max brightness level

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Hi,
Strange..... I tested the following code
Code:
```HSEROUT["Program start",13]
For i = 0 to 5
Lookup2 i,[1, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100], maxbright
B_max = maxbright */ 10484
HSEROUT ["Maxbright: ", DEC3 maxbright, "     B_Max: ", DEC4 B_max, 13]
NEXT```
And got the following results:
Code:
```Program start
Maxbright: 001     B_Max: 0040
Maxbright: 010     B_Max: 0409
Maxbright: 025     B_Max: 1023
Maxbright: 050     B_Max: 2047
Maxbright: 075     B_Max: 3071
Maxbright: 100     B_Max: 4095```
Seems to work fine here....

/Henrik.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by Scampy
the values for B_max and W_max do not change from the pre-programmed default of 4095 after the menu option is used to change the max brightness level
Is the default of 4095 inside the main loop and resetting B_max and W_max after the menu option returns to the main loop.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

One thing I would like to know is what the */ function means

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## Re: setting values and percentages

It's been covered multiple times on the forum and it's covered in the manual.
In short, think of it as multiplying by units of 1/256. 10484/256=40.95.

/Henrik.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

One thing I would like to know is what the */ function means
This is what I understand or misunderstand possibly.

Internally the maths can have a 32 bit result because the PIC has a 32 bit register. But if your maths calculation will fit in a word then using word=byte*byte will work and you do not need ** or */.

If you have wordH=word**word and wordL=word*word then you have all 32 bits stored in two words.

*/ is less obvious but gives the middle word of the 32 bits. Which is the same as word=word*word/256 losing the top and bottom 8 bits.

If as in your case and as you know 4095/100 gives a result of 40 therefore B_max = (4095/100)*maxbright will give 2000 when maxbright is 50.

Whereas 4095*256/100 gives result of 10483 and 50*/10483 gives 2047 because by multiplying by 256 and using the */ to remove the 8 lower bits (or divide by 256 which is the same) increased accuracy is achieved. So where is the precision lost? The division /100 is the source of lost precision so as a rule multiply first and divide last which is exactly what */ does in that your program multiplies by 256 and */ divides by 256 last. As an aside working this way reduces the calculations within the program, there is only a division

A question then. What is the result of 50*4095/100 2000 or 2047? and (4095/100)*50?

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## Re: setting values and percentages

result 50*4095/100 is 2047
result (4095/100)*50 is 2000

the calc follows typical bodmas rules (brackets, of , divide .....) see precedence in manual

the only 'suprising' bit is that the indermediate result (50*4095) is 204750 way too big for a word var. the pbp compiler code does indeed use 32 bit intermediate results.
the */ and ** operators allow you access these 32 bit results (providing you follow the rules of course)

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## Re: setting values and percentages

however
if you have a word var say numx
and x =4095
then 50*numx/100 the result is 81
the word var causes a intermediate stage overflow (bits 0-15 of 204750 =8142)
I still say integer math is tricky and results need to be double checked

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by richard
however
if you have a word var say numx
and x =4095
then 50*numx/100 the result is 81
the word var causes a intermediate stage overflow (bits 0-15 of 204750 =8142)
I do not understand this.
What is the relationship between numx and x?
Why does an intermediate stage overflow occur and what is an intermediate stage overflow?

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## Re: setting values and percentages

What is the relationship between numx and x?
poor typing
if you have a word var say numx
and numx =4095
then 50*numx/100 the result is 81
the word var causes a intermediate stage overflow (bits 0-15 of 204750 =8142)
I still say integer math is tricky and results need to be double checked

intermediate overflow
50*4095 =204750 max value for word 65535 therefore an overflow occurs and the result becomes 8142
Last edited by richard; - 3rd July 2014 at 10:44. Reason: more info

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by EarlyBird2
I do not understand this.

Why does an intermediate stage overflow occur and what is an intermediate stage overflow?

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by richard
intermediate overflow
50*4095 =204750 max value for word 65535 therefore an overflow occurs and the result becomes 8142
But the result is not stored in numx it is stored in another word variable called result?

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## Re: setting values and percentages

simply stated
if there is a var in a multilstage calculation then any intermediate results must be able to be stored in that var , its just the way it works.
try it yourself
the */ ,** ops are the only workaround

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## Re: setting values and percentages

you might have missed the point

50*4095/100 is 2047 this works (all constants)

numx=4095
50*numx/100 is 81 this does not

numy=50
numy*4095/100 is 81 this does not

numz=100
50*4095/numz is 81 this does not

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Now I understand what you are saying. It does seem odd to me that there is a 32 bit register for maths calculation which can not be used if there is a word or byte variable in the calculation because the word/byte variable could overflow. A bit more thinking is required on my part, I think.

Does this mean that using ** and */ uses 32 bit and * only 16 bit?
Last edited by EarlyBird2; - 3rd July 2014 at 11:48. Reason: more thinking

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Look at the Statement keyword "DIV32". It is possible to compute all of these statements:
numx=4095
50*numx/100

numy=50
numy*4095/100

numz=100
50*4095/numz

32. Did you find this post helpful? |

## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by EarlyBird2
Now I understand what you are saying. It does seem odd to me that there is a 32 bit register for maths calculation which can not be used if there is a word or byte variable in the calculation because the word/byte variable could overflow. A bit more thinking is required on my part, I think.

Does this mean that using ** and */ uses 32 bit and * only 16 bit?
After more thought and a bit of direction to look at DIV32 by Dave.

Multiplication stores a 32 bit result internally but the normal divide only works on the lower 16 bits which causes the 'overflow' problem highlighted by Richard. DIV32 was created specifically to overcome the 16 bit division limitation and as Dave says is a solution here.

Scampy asked about */ and how that works. It works by removing the division in the calculation so there is no 16 bit divide, there is an 8 bit shift or a divide by 256 of the 32 bits whichever way one wishes to visualise the process. Knowing that */ will apply a division by 256 one has to take account of this in the program.

In this case

B_max = (4095/100)*maxbright

take 4095/100 and multiply by 256 giving 10483.2 which is rounded up to 10484. Resulting in this

B_max = maxbright*/10484 which results in an integer value of 2047 when maxbright is 50.
Last edited by EarlyBird2; - 4th July 2014 at 07:44.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

I wrote this little bit of code to experiment with this thread its interesting to note that to */ method fails when your percentage goes past 1600 in lieu of 50
but the div32 method is quit sound up until the result exceeds 2^16 (65535 )
you need to remember that */ is the middle 16 bits and if you overflow that your still in trouble
Code:
```****************************************************************
'*  Name    : UNTITLED.BAS                                      *
'*  Author  : [select VIEW...EDITOR OPTIONS]                    *
'*  Notice  : Copyright (c) 2014 [select VIEW...EDITOR OPTIONS] *
'*  Date    : 7/2/2014                                          *
'*  Version : 1.0                                               *
'*  Notes   : 16f684                                                  *
'*          :                                                   *
'****************************************************************

#CONFIG
__config _INTRC_OSC_NOCLKOUT & _CP_OFF & _WDT_ON  &  _PWRTE_ON  &  _MCLRE_OFF
#ENDCONFIG
include "alldigital.pbp"

OPTION_REG.7=0
trisa = %11111110

DEFINE OSC 4
so var porta.0
dq var portc.1
Nposn var word
ss var word
s2 var word
s1 var word

high so
ss=4095
s1=1600
s2=100

pause 4000
lop:
pause 2000
nposn=s1*ss
nposn = div32 s2
serout2 so,84,["1 " ,#Nposn,13,10   ]
nposn=1600*4095/100          ; you need to adjust this line too
serout2 so,84,["2 " ,#Nposn,13,10   ]
nposn =  s1  */ 10484
serout2 so,84,["3 ", #Nposn,13,10   ]
nposn=s1*ss/100
serout2 so,84,["4 ", #Nposn,13,10   ]

goto lop```

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by richard
the div32 method is quit sound up until the result exceeds 2^16 (65535 )
you need to remember that */ is the middle 16 bits and if you overflow that your still in trouble
Is this because of the word variable being used?
Is this different in PBPL?

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## Re: setting values and percentages

yes only because the result needs to fit a word var

all of this only applies to pbpw only , pbpl is another story
Last edited by richard; - 4th July 2014 at 08:49. Reason: misunderstood question

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Originally Posted by richard
no its not because of the word var its just the way */ works .

all of this only applies to pbpw only , pbpl is another story
Yes */ can only result in a word the same applies to DIV32 in PBP2.xx as LONGs are not supported.

PBP3 supports LONG variables and */ returns the top 32 bits of a 48 bits internal result, ignoring the lower 16 bits or dividing by 65536 which ever you prefer.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Hi,

With PBPW a multiplication results in an internal 32bit result. The */ operator returns the middle 16 bits (inherent division by 256) while the ** operator returns the top 16bits (inherent division by 65536) of this 32bit intermediate result. You need a WORD variable to accommodate the "full" result.

With PBPL a multiplication results in an internal 48bit result. The */ operator returns the middle 32 bits (inherent division by 256) while the ** operator returns the top 32bits (inherent division by 65536) of this 48bit intermediate result. You need a LONG variable to accommodate the full result.

Yes */ can only result in a word the same applies to DIV32 in PBP2.xx as LONGs are not supported.
You don't need PBP3 to use LONGs. Support for that was introduced in PBP2.50, 7 years ago. But you DO need to use an 18F part.

And, finally, DIV32 isn't supported (not needed) with PBPL since it uses a 32bit division routine by default.

All this according to the manual.

EDIT: Both the */ and ** operators supports variables on both sides of the operator while DIV32 requires a constant on the right side. You can't do
Code:
```Dummy = 1000*1000
Result = DIV32 myVAR   ' Won't work, DIV32 requires division by a constant.```
EDIT again, about that DIV32 requiring a constant.....I'm not sure any more. Must try it on actual hardware so you may want to disregard that for the moment :-)

/Henrik.
Last edited by HenrikOlsson; - 4th July 2014 at 10:21.

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## Re: setting values and percentages

Aargh, not allowed to edit my post....
Regarding the DIV32 - I was wrong, it's more the other way around. Doing Dummy = 1000*1000 won't work because both are constants. At least one of the vaules must be a variable or the compiler will replace the multiplication with a constant resulting in the internal system variables not containing the value for DIV32 to operate on. See here and here for more details.

Sorry for the mixup in my previous reply.

/Henrik.