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  1. #1
    blainecf's Avatar
    blainecf Guest

    Default Custom array of ports using array?

    Is it possible to make an array, where each element equates to a non-consecutive port.

    Example:

    RELAY VAR BIT[10]

    ' (obviously, this doesn't work, but it does crash the compiler)
    SYMBOL RELAY[1] = PORTB.6
    SYMBOL RELAY[2] = PORTC.4
    SYMBOL RELAY[3] = PORTD.2
    ...

    ' cycle through relays
    for i = 1 to 3
    RELAY[i] = %1
    PAUSE 1000
    RELAY[i] = %0
    PAUSE 300
    next i

  2. #2
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    Default

    I don't see why that wouldn't work. Try removing the symbols. I don't see the need for them. I declared relay at the top.

  3. #3
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    Default

    I should say the Symbol command.

  4. #4
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    Default

    Plus I think an array should start with variable 0 not 1. So it would be 0 through 9.

  5. #5
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    blainecf,
    I am not sure this will work like you expect. When you declare an array variable, it is acually pointing to a series of consecutive RAM addresses. So later, when you use the variable, it goes to the address and uses the value currently at that address. What you are looking to do is create an array that is actually pointing to the addresses represented by the individual pins (which are not even consecutive).

    After playing with it a little and looking at the .lst file, I don't know if this can be done in PBP. Once you have created the array, any further references to the array are modifying/reading the contents, not the address. The only info in the manual I see is assigning a label to a specifc pin. Which is handled using different ASM commands.

    Maybe one of the real gurus could chime in here and set me straight if I'm wrong (Melanie? Darrel?). Or provide a workaround to do the job.

    Hope to get a better answer,
    Steve

  6. #6
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    Smile

    Last edited by paul borgmeier; - 13th June 2006 at 20:02.

  7. #7
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    Smile a little more info ...

    Although slightly contrived and uses more RAM - this does it.

    Code:
    Relay var Byte[4]
    x var byte
    i var byte
    
    Relay[1] = 14  'RB6
    Relay[2] = 20  'RC4
    Relay[3] = 26  'RD2
    main:
    ' cycle through relays
    for i = 1 to 3
         x = relay[i]
         porta.0[x]=1
         PAUSE 1000
         porta.0[x]=0
         PAUSE 300
    next i
    Paul Borgmeier
    Salt Lake City, Utah
    USA

  8. #8
    blainecf's Avatar
    blainecf Guest

    Default Makes a case for functions with pass-by-reference

    Bummer,

    It's these little things that make programming clean and respectable.

    Still, it seems a shame that I can create an aliassed variable that is equivilent to a pin, but not an array element. Seems like the same type of technology.

    So close, yet so far.

    Thanks so much for your input, everyone.

  9. #9
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    Default

    Paul:
    Thanks for "chiming in" with a solution. I just want to make sure I understand what your code is trying to do so I can learn from it. I suspected there was a way to shoehorn this idea into PBP.
    Code:
    Relay[1] = 14  'RB6  is 14 bits offset from RA0
    Relay[2] = 20  'RC4  is 20 bits offset from RA0
    Relay[3] = 26  'RD2  is 26 bits offset from RA0
    This array is establishing an offset from bit.0 on PORTA. I assume that most pics have PORTA-PORTX at consecutive regiester addresses (I only have a couple of datasheets to reference, but that's what I see)

    Code:
    for i = 1 to 3
         x = relay[i]
         porta.0[x]=1
         PAUSE 1000
         porta.0[x]=0
         PAUSE 300
    next i
    With the Relay[] array containing the correct offets, one can now use that with porta.0[x] to select the desire bit. Since porta.0 points to a bit, the offset [x] is in bits as well.
    Did miss this "feature" in the PBP manual? Can I extend this idea further in that the inclusion of [X] to any reference that points to a register will actually cause an offset reference in accordance to the base reference. ( ie, if it was a word variable that [x] was added to, [x] would actually reference a register x*2 bytes offset?).


    Steve

  10. #10
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    Smile Neat Trick

    Steve,

    Yes, you are 100% correct in the logic - that is exactly how it works. This “trick” is not in the manual but first appeared on the PicBasic List in 2002 (http://list.picbasic.com/forum/messages/4011/4739.html? ).

    I remember being excited when this particular email came because it solved a problem I was having at the time. The links posted in my reply #6 above by Bruce and Melanie also clearly demonstrate this trick's use.

    As I understand it, it works for all SF/GP Register locations, not just PORT bits, hence the indexed locations must be sequential like you mentioned. I always check the datasheet if I am going to use it on sequential Ports to make sure they are indeed sequential (and they always have been for the PICs I have used).


    Paul
    Last edited by paul borgmeier; - 14th June 2006 at 05:40.

  11. #11
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    Post

    Since portpins rarely move(constants) you could use the LOOKUP statement to get the offset values. Should free up some RAM. The LOOKUP could ofcourse be placed in a subroutine if you need to access it from many different locations in your program. That way saving ROM.
    Code:
    x      var byte
    i       var byte
    
    main:
    for i = 0 to 3
    '               a  b  c  d
    '               0  6  4  2
         LOOKUP i, [0,14,20,26], x
         porta.0[x]=1
         PAUSE 1000
         porta.0[x]=0
         PAUSE 300
    next i
    /Ingvar

  12. #12
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    Smile Sweet

    Nice improvement! - The code for what blaine originally wanted to do is getting pretty clean considering it is an undocumented feature.

    Best,

    Paul

  13. #13
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    Default

    Nice job Paul & Ingvar..;o}

    Yet another version.
    Code:
        DEFINE OSC 4
    
    '   BASIC/ASM version = 172 words
        
        x   var word
        i   var byte
        RelayNum var PORTA
        
    '    High byte = FSR / Low byte = port pin (or multiple pins)
        RLY1 CON %0000010100000001 ' PORTA|Bit0
        RLY2 CON %0000011001000000 ' PORTB|Bit6
        RLY3 CON %0000011100010000 ' PORTC|Bit4
        RLY4 CON %0000100000000100 ' PORTD|Bit2
        
        ADCON1 = 7
        PORTA = 0 : PORTB = 0 : PORTC = 0 : PORTD = 0
        TRISA = 0 : TRISB = 0 : TRISC = 0 : TRISD = 0
        
    ASM
    RelayOn macro
        movf  _x+1,w ; high byte = pointer to port file reg
        movwf FSR    ; load FSR
        movf  _x,w   ; low byte = port bit to change
        xorwf INDF,f ; toggle port pin
        endm
    ENDASM
    
    ASM
    RelayOff macro
        movf  _x,w   ; reload port pin to toggle
        xorwf INDF,f ; do it
        endm
    ENDASM
                             
    main:
        for i = 0 to 3
            LOOKUP2 i, [RLY1,RLY2,RLY3,RLY4], x ' lookup file reg & XOR pattern
            @ RelayOn
            PAUSE 500
            @ RelayOff
            PAUSE 500
        next i
        
        END
    Regards,

    -Bruce
    tech at rentron.com
    http://www.rentron.com

  14. #14
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    Default

    I agree, good stuff!

    Here's another one.
    Code:
    INCLUDE "VirtualPort.bas"
    
    Relays  VAR BYTE : Relays = 0
    
    ASM
    RelayPort  macro
        Vpin  0, PORTB, 6  ; RELAY1
        Vpin  1, PORTC, 4  ; RELAY2
        Vpin  2, PORTD, 2  ; RELAY3
      endm
    
      OutputPort  RelayPort    ; Set Port to OUTPUT
    ENDASM
    Then, here's a test loop to cycle thru the relays...
    Code:
    i  VAR BYTE
    
    Main:
        for i = 0 to 2
            Relays = DCD i
            @  WritePort _Relays, RelayPort
            PAUSE 500
        next i
    Goto Main
    Code size = 104 words, 65 without the PAUSE.

    or you can just...
    Code:
    Relays = %010
    @  WritePort _Relays, RelayPort
    to turn on RELAY2 by itself.
    Code size = 21 words.

    http://www.pbpgroup.com/Vport/VirtualPort.bas.txt

    HTH,
        DT

  15. #15
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    Smile Amazing yet again ...

    Bruce, Darrel,

    You guys are amazing yet again! I continue to learn and what good fun.

    Paul

    Edit - I am an ASL student (Assembly Second Language) student and removed some code from this post that was not correct.-pb
    Last edited by paul borgmeier; - 15th June 2006 at 08:53.

  16. #16
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    Default

    Just keeps getting better & better ehh...;o}

    Nice work Darrel.
    Regards,

    -Bruce
    tech at rentron.com
    http://www.rentron.com

  17. #17
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    Talking Bruce and Darrel Cheated!!!

    Bruce and Darrel,
    You guys cheated(lol). Paul and Ingvar got the job done tidely with PBP. You had to resort to Assembly.

    This is what I love about this forum. Bright, capable folks working together to make a good product (PBP) work even better! I knew in my initial post that there just had to be a way to do this, it just was not documented and was beyond my basic skills. Great learning oppurtunity. I think this is worth putting in the FAQ (in some form) for others to reference later.

    Even though it wasn't my post originally, thanks guys for the great lessons.

    Cheers,
    Steve

  18. #18
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    Default

    Thanks Bruce, Paul and Steve,

    And yes I did cheat, by using a module that I had already written.

    I started writing VirtualPort in response to this post from Osiris
    http://www.picbasic.co.uk/forum/showthread.php?t=3554

    He was looking for a way to have a 16-bit port that was scattered across random pins. By the time I got it working, Melanie had already given him what he needed, so I didn't bother posting it.

    But, I soon realized that it was going to be more usefull than originally intended so continued to add more macro's and features, and have managed to do some pretty cool stuff with it.

    Here's how the 16-bit port for Osiris looked...
    Code:
    MyPort   VAR Word  SYSTEM
    ASM  
    MyPortPins  macro        ; these define which bits go with which pins
        Vpin   0, PORTB,0
        Vpin   1, PORTC,4
        Vpin   2, PORTA,0
        Vpin   3, PORTC,1
        Vpin   4, PORTC,3
        Vpin   5, PORTC,0
        Vpin   6, PORTA,1
        Vpin   7, PORTC,5
        Vpin   8, PORTB,2
        Vpin   9, PORTB,3
        Vpin  10, PORTC,2
        Vpin  11, PORTC,0
        Vpin  12, PORTB,4
        Vpin  13, PORTB,6
        Vpin  14, PORTB,5
        Vpin  15, PORTC,7
      endm
    ENDASM
    
    @  OutputPort  MyPortPins
    @  WritePort   MyPort, MyPortPins
    
    @  InputPort   MyPortPins
    @  ReadPort    MyPort, MyPortPins
    This creates a full 16-bit bi-directional port that can be placed on ANY pins in ANY order.<HR>
    Additional macros can also allow control of Direction, Enable, Latch pulses etc. in the same structure. Here's an 8-bit port with flow control
    Code:
    Direction  VAR PORTB.5
    Enable     VAR PORTB.1
    
    ASM
    Port8_Read  macro
        PinLow _Direction   ; Set direction pin for Read
        Vpin   0, PORTB,0
        Vpin   1, PORTC,4
        Vpin   2, PORTA,0
        Vpin   3, PORTC,1
        Vpin   4, PORTC,3
        Vpin   5, PORTC,0
        Vpin   6, PORTA,1
        Vpin   7, PORTC,5
        PulseLow  Enable, 2 ; Low pulse for 2uS
      endm
    
    Port8_Write  macro
        PinHigh _Direction   ; Set direction pin for Write
        Vpin   0, PORTB,0
        Vpin   1, PORTC,4
        Vpin   2, PORTA,0
        Vpin   3, PORTC,1
        Vpin   4, PORTC,3
        Vpin   5, PORTC,0
        Vpin   6, PORTA,1
        Vpin   7, PORTC,5
        PulseLow  Enable, 2 ; Low pulse for 2uS
      endm
    ENDASM
    
    @  OutputPort  Port8_Write
    @  WritePort   MyPort, Port8_Write
    
    @  InputPort   Port8_Read
    @  ReadPort    MyPort, Port8_Read
    Or that can be simplified like this...
    Code:
    ASM
    Port8_Pins  macro
        Vpin   0, PORTB,0
        Vpin   1, PORTC,4
        Vpin   2, PORTA,0
        Vpin   3, PORTC,1
        Vpin   4, PORTC,3
        Vpin   5, PORTC,0
        Vpin   6, PORTA,1
        Vpin   7, PORTC,5
        PulseLow  Enable, 2 ; Low pulse for 2uS
      endm
    
    Port8_Read  macro
        PinLow _Direction   ; Set direction pin for Read
        Port8_Pins
      endm
    
    Port8_Write  macro
        PinHigh _Direction   ; Set direction pin for Write
        Port8_Pins
      endm
    ENDASM
    <hr>

    Another similar question that keeps popping up every now and then, is how to use an LCD that's not connected to a contiguous nibble of a port.

    This program allows you to do that, and also ties it in with LCDOUT for a "transparent" interface.
    Code:
    INCLUDE "HighJack.bas"
    @  HighJack  LCDOUT,  _LCDsend
    
    Clear
    INCLUDE "VirtualPort.bas"
    
    ;----[ Change these to match your LCD ]---------------------------------------
    LCD_DB4   VAR PORTB.0
    LCD_DB5   VAR PORTB.4
    LCD_DB6   VAR PORTC.6
    LCD_DB7   VAR PORTC.3
    LCD_RS    VAR PORTD.1
    LCD_E     VAR PORTD.0
    LCD_Lines     CON 2    ' # of Lines on LCD,  1 or 2+
    LCD_DATAUS    CON 50   ' Data delay time in us 
    LCD_COMMANDUS CON 2000 ' Command delay time in us 
     
    
    ;----[Virtual LCD Port --- 4bit mode]----------------(Don't Change)-----------
    ASM
    LCD_Port_HNIB  macro           ; Port definition for LCD High Nibble
        Vbit   LCDCDFLAG, _LCD_RS  ; Select Command/Data register
        Vpin   4, _LCD_DB4         ; Put the High Nibble on the bus
        Vpin   5, _LCD_DB5
        Vpin   6, _LCD_DB6
        Vpin   7, _LCD_DB7
        PulseLow  _LCD_E, 2        ; pulse the Enable Pin for 2 us
      endm
    ;-----------------------    
    LCD_Port_LNIB  macro           ; Port definition for LCD Low Nibble 
        Vpin   0, _LCD_DB4         ; Put the Low Nibble on the bus
        Vpin   1, _LCD_DB5
        Vpin   2, _LCD_DB6
        Vpin   3, _LCD_DB7
        PulseLow  _LCD_E, 2        ; pulse the Enable Pin for 2 us
      endm
      
      OutputPort  LCD_Port_HNIB    ; Set LCD bus to OUTPUT
    ENDASM
    
    
    ;----[Main program starts here]-----------------------------------------------
    LoopCount  VAR WORD
      
    
    Main:
      lcdout $FE,$80, dec LoopCount
      LoopCount = LoopCount + 1
    goto Main
    
    ;----[Send a byte to the Virtual LCD PORT]--------called by LCDOUT------------
    TempChar        var  byte
    Char            VAR  Byte
    LCD_Initialized VAR  FLAGS.1
    RSS             VAR  FLAGS.0                ; LCD RS State
    
    ;-------
    LCDsend:
          @  MOVE?AB  _TempChar                 ; Get char sent by LCDOUT, in WREG
          if !LCD_Initialized then LCD_Init     ; Make sure LCD was Initialized 
      LCDAfterInit:
          if TempChar = $FE then RSS=0 : goto LCDsendDone ; next char is Command 
          Char = TempChar
      LCDsendCOM:
          @  WritePort   _Char, LCD_Port_HNIB   ; send the High Nibble
      LCDsendShortCOM:
          @  WritePort   _Char, LCD_Port_LNIB   ; send the Low Nibble
    
          if LCD_RS OR (Char > 2) then
              PAUSEUS LCD_DATAUS                ; Data delay time in us 
          else
              PAUSEUS LCD_COMMANDUS             ; Command delay
          endif
          if LCD_Initialized then RSS = 1       ; Set RS to Data next time
      LCDsendDone:
    return
    
    ;----[Initialize the LCD]-----------------------------------------------------
    LCD_Init:
        LOW LCD_RS : HIGH LCD_E   ; Start with RS LOW and Enable High
        Char = 3   : gosub  LCDsendShortCOM : pause 6
                     gosub  LCDsendShortCOM : PAUSE 1
                     gosub  LCDsendShortCOM : PAUSE 1
        Char = 2   : gosub  LCDsendShortCOM : PAUSE 1  ; Start 4-bit mode
        Char = $28 : gosub  LCDsendCOM  ; Function Set, 4-bit, 2-line, 5x7
        Char = $0C : gosub  LCDsendCOM  ; Display ON
        Char = $01 : gosub  LCDsendCOM  ; Clear Screen
        Char = $06 : gosub  LCDsendCOM  ; Entry Mode
        LCD_Initialized = 1             ; LCD has been Initialized
    goto LCDAfterInit
    Of course this relies on another program I wrote, "HighJack", to actually link in to LCDOUT. But nobody bothered to respond to this thread
    http://www.picbasic.co.uk/forum/showthread.php?t=3290

    so I never bothered posting it.
    <br>
    DT

  19. #19
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    Default

    Darrel,
    I am slowly worming my way through your code and I noticed in VituralPort the local variable "Vaddr" in the the Vpin macro. What's it for? I did a search for it and I only see it being assigned a value (in two places), but otherwise never used.

    Also, you mentioned "HighJack", but did not post it.

    BTW, I have been following your "Wish List" thread. Congrats. Get a good chair! And did you set a new avatar?

    Wish you all success,
    Steve

  20. #20
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    Default

    Excellent!

    <table><tr><td valign=top></td><td>Thanks Steve. That's a bug. Thanks for finding it. The Vaddr allows it to work with WORD variables for the 16-bit ports. Then, these lines...
    Code:
              if (PortAction == 0)                   ; read
                  MOVE?TT  P, Pbit, PortVar, VarBit      
              else
                  if (PortAction == 1)               ; write
                      MOVE?TT  PortVar, VarBit, P, Pbit
    Should have used Vaddr instead of PortVar. I got the VarBit, but missed the Vaddr.

    I will make the changes. &nbsp;http://www.pbpgroup.com/Vport/VirtualPort.bas.txt

    Yeah, that new chair idea is sounding pretty good
    and, yup spruced up the avatar a bit. Hopefully it's not too annoying.

    Read the part about HighJack again.</td></tr></table>

    Thanks again,
    &nbsp; &nbsp; DT

  21. #21
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    Question

    Alright. I've gotten though the code but still have one question. Why use seperate delay code? It's commented as "Similar to PAUSEUS, but ASM interrupt compatible".
    Yet I'm missing something here. Why is this more compatible with ASM interrupts then the PBP PAUSEUS routine? I've been using the PAUSEUS in my current project, with both high and low priority ASM interrupts (18F4620), without any problems. The delays are slightly longer than requested, due to the interrupt occuring in the delay loop (trival for most apps), but no other ill effects I've noticed. This 'error' in delay time would occur with any delay based on code exectuing timing and a loop, unless interrupts were disabled prior to entering the loop. So this can't be the reason.

    Also, I think the PBP routine could be easily called by inserting the following where the delay is required ("_us" is a predefined word variable/literal containing the delay in us):

    Code:
            movlw   (_us) >> 8
            movwf   R0 + 1
            movlw   low (_us)
            call    PAUSEUSL        ; Delay for us
    PAUSEUS_USED = 1
    One thought that just occured to me. Becuase you use a macro, your not pushing anything onto the stack. So you are avoiding any possible overflow due to interrupts occuring during the delay. Is this it?

    Steve

  22. #22
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    Default

    It's not that it's OK to "Be interrupted", but it's OK to be in the routine that does the interrupting.

    PAUSEUS has a couple shortcomings. One, is that it uses PBP's system variables (R0-R8). So it corrupts PBP's flow if it's used in an ASM interrupt without "Instant Interrupts".

    The second is that PAUSEUS has a minimum delay of around 24us @ 4mhz since it figures out the delay Count at run time.

    The DelayUS macro can pause for a little as 1us by calculating the delay at Compile Time, and adding a single NOP if that's all that's needed. Or a 3cycle loop and 2 NOP's if running at 20mhz. And it doesn't use any PBP system vars.

    It can be useful in other programs as well, so I'll show it here again for those that aren't as diligent as you Steve.
    Code:
    VP_DelayCount  VAR WORD BANK0  ; Used for DelayUS only
    
    ASM
    ;----[Similar to PAUSEUS, but ASM interrupt compatible]---(accurate to 1uS)--
    DelayUS  macro T
      local InstCount, LoopCount, DelayLoop, LoopsDone, LeftOver, Offset
    ; -- Calculate number of 3 cycle loops plus leftover nop's to execute --
    InstCount = ((OSC*10/4)*T+5)/10 ; Inst cycles required for delay (Rounded UP)
    LoopCount = InstCount / 3
        if (LoopCount > 255)
    Offset = (LoopCount >> 8) * 7 + 4
        else
    Offset = 0
        endif
    ; -- Adjust for HighByte --
    InstCount = InstCount - Offset
        if (Offset > (LoopCount & 0FFh))
    InstCount = InstCount - 4
        endif
    LoopCount = InstCount / 3
        if (LoopCount > 255)
    Offset = (LoopCount >> 8) * 7
        else
    Offset = 0
        endif
    LeftOver  = InstCount % 3
    ;-------------------------------------------
        if (LoopCount > 0)
            MOVE?CW  LoopCount, _VP_DelayCount
    DelayLoop
            decfsz   _VP_DelayCount, F               ;  1
            goto     DelayLoop                       ;  2   3 per loop, under 256
        
            if (LoopCount > 255)
                movf     _VP_DelayCount + 1, W       ;  1    
                btfsc    STATUS, Z                   ;  1    
                goto     LoopsDone                   ;  2   4 on last loop
                
                decf     _VP_DelayCount + 1, F       ;  1    
                goto     DelayLoop                   ;  2   7 per highbyte count 
    LoopsDone
            endif
        endif
        if (LeftOver > 0)
            nop
        endif
        if (LeftOver > 1)
            nop
        endif
      endm
    ENDASM
    DT

  23. #23
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    Exclamation

    Ok,
    Quote Originally Posted by Darrel Taylor
    It's not that it's OK to "Be interrupted", but it's OK to be in the routine that does the interrupting.
    This makes much more sense than what I was thinking.

    On thing that should be mentioned. It is generally best to keep interrupt service routines (ISR) as short as possible, so that additional interrupts are not "missed" while handling the current interrupt. So putting a pause into an ISR must be used with caution, and with a good understanding of how it will effect other timing related items. One exception to this would be the 16-bit PICs with High and Low priority interrupts (which are supported by PBP), where a pause in a low prority interrupt would not prevent a high priority interrupt from executing. So all the time critical inturrupts could be High Priority.

    Steve

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